Miscellanica Arborea I. Radical Come ts 2. Betula in the Middle Holocene 2. Betula in the Late Holocene 3. Abies in the Middle Holocene 4.
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Picea in the Middle Holocene 5. Pinus in the Middle Holocene 6. Abies in the Late Holocene 7. Picea in the Late Holocene 8. Pinus in the Late Holocene 9.
Alnus in the Late Holocene Ulmus in the Middle Holocene Ulrnus in the Late Holocene Tilia in the Middle Holocene Tilia in the Late Holocene Carpinus, Contemporary Distribution Carpinus in the First Half of the Middle Holocene Fagus, Contemporary Distribution Fagus in the Late Holocene Quercus robur in the Middle Holocene Proposed Cognates for the Apple Terms 3.
Ritual Associations 4. The Weak and Strong Sets Tables 1. Geological Periods 2. The Bright Birch 4. The Weaker Names 5. The Stronger Names 6. Some Slavic Cognates 7.
Some Germanic Cognates 8. I have sought to test two blue emu fat burner taxonomic and the other methodological. The taxonomic hypothesis is that the PIE speakers differentiated at least eighteen major categories of trees "arboreal units" by the application of between twenty and thirty tree names.
My methodological hypothesis is that the rich scholarship on tree names within Indo-Europeanist philology can be significantly correlated with the results of paleobotanical analysis to yield a more realistic and interesting inference of the PIE consiliere după blue emu fat burner în greutate system.
The monograph falls into four chapters. In the first are stated certain essential questions and assumptions of method and conceptualization, particularly as regards the so-called conjunctive approach and the use of the comparative method in semantic reconstruction the subtopics are "over- and underdifferentiation," "denotation and connotation," and the "protomorpheme".
The second chapter contains a brief discussion of the biological concept of succession, and of the inferred succession of trees of central and eastern Europe from the Pre- to the Subboreal; particular attention is given to the cruciaI new palynological evidence from the Atlantic period about to B.
In the third chapter, I analyze in some detail the philological evidence on eighteen categories of trees and thirty tree names : birch, conifers, juniper-cedar, aspen-poplar, willow, apple, maple, alder, hazel, nut tree, elm, linden, ash, hornbeam, beech, cherry, yew, and oak.
For each, the results of a primary concern with comparative linguistics have been related to the evidence of botany and paleobotany. My final chapter summarizes what appear to be the positive results of the historical-comparative test of the two basic hypotheses. The inferred arboreal inventory is stated in detail and discussed in relation to the question of tree names as semantic primitives.
The second set of conclusions in this final chapter is a by-product of my original goal, and consists of broader cultural and linguistic points: the uses and functions of the trees in PIE culture and the significance of the preceding analysis for relating the early speech communities to each other and to their natural habitats.
Several patterns have emerged here, including: a high number of shifts in denotation between PIE and Greek and a high number of semantic innovations shared by Greek and Albanian; a high attrition of the posited P Pierdere în greutate fb acoperă E arboreal terms in six relatively peripheral stocks-Indic, Iranian, Albanian, Armenian, Anatolian, and Tocharian; the cohesion between the three western stocks and between the four stocks which seem to be basic in terms blue emu fat burner the arboreal question-Italic, Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic; and the relatively close relation of the Slavic and Germanic stocks to the system posited for PIE.
Aside from their semantic interest, such specific conclusions bear directly on fundamental questions of early Indo-European dialects and migrations, and on the value of lexical semantics as a potential source for dialectal groupings through the comparative method.
The monograph draws on several kinds of authoritative work. The ecological theory was summarized from standard texts such as Woodbury.
For the paleobotany I relied primarily on three works: Firbas's Waldgeschichte for the region north of the Alps, and the monographs by Frenzel and Nejshtadt for the prehistory of the USSR. The descriptive botany was garnered from many handbooks and from blue emu fat burner entries in three encyclopedias : The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Der grosse Brockhaus, and above all, the Bol'shaja Sovetskaja.
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The archaeological information comes mainly from recent syntheses by Marija Gimbutas. For the philological side, certain etymological dictionaries proved excellent, and I usually accepted the author's judgment on the phonological and grammatical relations of his language and stock to the ancestor language-although a t times I had to reinterpret or correct his semantic or botanical statements about trees.
My authorities on the languages and stocks have been: Mayrhofer on Sanskrit, J. Bartholomae was ideal blue emu fat burner Old Iranian, and Morgenstierne has recorded valuable information on the contemporary Iranian dialects. Latin, although one of the most crucial sources of evidence, constituted a problem: Walde and Hofmann sometimes include improbabilities without a caveat, whereas Meillet, in Ernout-Meillet, is incomplete, although what he does cite is usually beyond dispute.
I have been hampered by the absence of adequate etymological dictionaries for Tocharian which, granted, has little arboreal datafor Albanian although Meyer and Tagliavini are helpfuland for Armenian although Hiibschmann and Solta are usually satisfactory. In these and similar instances, I have simply had to use my judgment and blue emu fat burner assistance of colleagues. Of the numerous articles, notes, and chapters on tree questions, those by Hoops, Osthoff, Blue emu fat burner, Thieme, Benveniste, and V.
Ivanov were particularly stimulating. Numerous scholars have contributed in various ways to this research. I am indebted to Harold Gall, Stuart Struever, Homer Thomas, and Floyd Zwinkfor their helpful suggestions,and above all to Karl Butzer and Burkhardt Frenzel for their informed reading of the botanical portions of the manuscript.
Penetrating and copious were the critiques by William Wyatt, Jr. A discussion with Jerzy Kurylowicz was blue emu fat burner encouraging at a crucial point in the conceptualization.
Goodenough, Harold Conklin, and Floyd Lounsbury for their ideas on the semantics of paradigms and taxonomies; and to the archaeological anthropologist, Lewis Binford, for his often inspired thoughts on how to relate ecological factors to inferences about prehistory. I am indebted to Robbins Burling for a trenchant critique of an earlier version of chapter 1.
Margaret Hardin Friedrich read the entire manuscript twice and contributed invaluably to improving the structure and explicitness of the argument. I t should go without saying that none of these botanists. Methods and Concepts Introduction This short study deals with one small portion of the languageand-culture system of blue emu fat burner speakers of the PIE dialects, who are assumed to have been scattered in a broad band over the steppe, forests, and foothills between the western Caspian area and the Carpathians and possibly the north German plainduring roughly the fourth millennium and the first centuries of the third millennium B.
The taxonomic hypothesis to be presented and argued consists of three parts.
First, that the PIE recognized and named at blue emu fat burner eighteen units or categories of trees. Second, that the PIE language, or large groups of PIE dialects, contained at least thirty names of trees; these are attested in varying ways and degrees in languages of the descendent stocks, but particularly in Italic, Germanic, Baltic, and Slavic, and to a lesser degree in Celtic and Greek.
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The probabilities of at least fortyone species-level entities for the PIE will be demonstrated in the pages following. The nature and interdependencies of these systems can only be discovered and interpreted by conjoining three approaches, or analytical systems.
The first approach is linguistic-above all, phonological. Although there do remain serious contradictions of evidence and conflicts of judgment, the phonology of IE and of PIE itself is today based on an exhaustive and theoretically sophisticated study of rich factual material.
This phonology can provide the protosemanticist with the essential information on the existence of protomorphs, on their phonological shape, and on their symbolic notation, and with a t least some of the criteria for making decisions about homonymy, synonymy, and so forth; the interpretation of a protosemantics depends significantly on protophonology.
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To a lesser extent, the semantic interpretation depends on morphology-on the theories of nominal root structure and on the patterns of declension and derivation. Syntax is of negligible relevance because of the absence of prototexts, and even-with a few exceptions-of protosyntagmas containing tree names. The phonological and morphological parameters of inference constitute blue emu fat burner linguistic system. Second, just as the shape of a morpheme is an abstraction from the tabulated phonological correspondences, so the denotation of a protoform is abstracted from the tabulated correspondences in meaning.
But these semantic abstractions need to be interpreted by a combination of the traditional science of etymology, blue emu fat burner with the unique histories of word and word families, and, on the other hand, the newer sciences of linguistic ethnography and structural semantics, which are concerned with relations of contrast and covariation between sets of morphemes and words, and with the semantic features which underlie such sets.
Proto Indo European Trees
These philological and ethnographic parameters of inference constitute the semantic system. Following botanical practice, the Latin names of the genera are capitalized, blue emu fat burner abbreviated to the first letter when followed by a species name, which is always in minuscule. The Conjunctive Approach Third and last, the reconstructed lexicon may relate to data and systems that are neither linguistic nor semantic.
Such data may range from archaeological site reports e. The interpretive systems may range from the general concept of a Neolithic technology e. The results blue emu fat burner linguistic or semantic reconstruction may be tied outward to the up-to-date information from the humanistic sciences, as in the metrical analyses by Meillet, Jakobson, and Watkins, or to the social sciences, as in the mythological analyses by Dum6zil and Littleton, or to the natural sciences, as in this book.
This process of tying outward I would call disambiguation through contextualization. The entire field of nonlinguistic and nonsemantic information I would call the external system. The conjunctive approach develops from the postulate that the science of linguistics is concerned with systems of sound and meaning in natural language and with the interconnections between these two levels of reality; linguistic here lexical meaning is assumed to be significantly related to natural habitat and human culture.
The conjunctive approach rests less heavily on tight or stringent proofs using only one line of evidence, such as phonology, and seeks, rather, to exploit all relevant evidence in order to establish a hierarchy of probability.
By taking account of diverse facts and analytical models, the conjunctive approach may reduce the indeterminacy or "nonuniqueness" of narrowly based solutions-particularly of those based on purely formal operations and purely internal textual analysis. The conjunctive approach may eventually lead us to rewrite many dictionary entries and-what is more interesting-to develop an adequate theory of PIE culture; that is, of the system of perceptual and conceptual values shared and transmitted by the members of this primitive Neolithic society.
Methods and Concepts Three Semantic Problems Over- and Underdigerentiation As with fieldwork in descriptive semantics, two of the major problems in inferring a protosemantics are over- and underdifferentiation in the relation between sets blue emu fat burner things and sets of symbols. In overdifferentiation, two or more symbolic forms are found to correspond to what a t first appears to be but one eligible or available referent.
In underdifferentiation, the number of such minimal meaningful forms or "morphs" is inferior to the number of referents which, for one reason or another, one would wish to postulate. My meaning may be clarified by several brief examples, the full details of which are treated in the etymological studies that make up the bulk of the book. A considerable number of PIE morphemes or arboreal units have two or more alternate names or forms, as is obvious from the ratio of eighteen units to thirty names; specifically, the oak and the willow have three each, and five trees have two each: the yew, the apple, the maple, the elm, and the nut tree -although the latter is probably on a different level of taxonomic contrast and analogous to the notion of "fruit tree.
In other instances, such as that blue emu fat burner the yew unit, the reflexes of the two terms contrast in some stocks Slavic, Greek, and perhaps Italicalthough with different denotata. In yet other instances, such as the maple, two terms are a t hand for "one tree. The correspondences diverge from conventional phonological and root theory, 10 porunci de pierdere în greutate they cannot be dogmatically rejected.
Three Semantic Problems There are instances where one of the two terms has reflexes that are limited to two or three continguous stocks. Does this indicate that a particular species of maple was limited to western Europe during the Subboreal roughly to B.
To what extent do the overlapping forms within Germanic reflect a synchronic taxonomic contrast between distinct species or two groups of species of maples?
And into P I E itself? Somewhat less troublesome and frequent are the problems of semantic underdifferentiation, but examples are not hard to find. In at least parts of the P I E homeland of the fourth millennium, both the juniper and cedar were probably hardy. But these denotata show up in only one set of cognates, and oneof the poorest i. This imperfect set of forms contrast with other sets of forms, just as, in a much looser sense, the junipers and cedars are physically more similar to each other than either is to any other class of trees; in other words, there is enough formal blue emu fat burner semantic correspondence and contrast to postulate a hypothetical morphemic nucleus.
May we provisionally assign the denotation of juniper-cedar to Iate P I E el-w-n-? Sometimes there is no term a t all for a referent that may well have existed in the system.
Are we to regard this as a "zero lexeme" Goodenoughp. It is well established that the larch was present in much of the P I E homeland, yet no protoform exists.
The linden Tilia was ubiquitous throughout eastern Europe during the entire Atlantic roughly to B. Does this not pinpoint the need for new hypotheses, and for a detailed reexamination by stock Methods and Concepts specialists e. I n what follows, "denotation" is used for the class of individuals that is necessarily referred to by a name; those referents are blue emu fat burner botanical constructs, but one may reasonably assume that these latter correspond in some important sense to conceptualtaxonomic units in PIE culture.
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Clearly, my usage of denotation and connotation differs from that of either a medieval philosopher or a modern logician, both of whom have quite different motivations, and also from that of the ethnographer who seeks to elicit supposedly "objective" referents from live speakers.
Let us now consider some problems in inferring protodenotation. Denotative relations may be paradigmatic. For example, the PIE terms for blood relatives were distinguished by generation, sex of relative, and patrigroup membership. I would assume that the tree names constitute a paradigmatic set discrete from other sets such as kinship terms, and composed of members distinguished from each blue emu fat burner by unique combinations of dimensions such as leaf-shape, the yielding of fruit, and overall shape.
The denotation of proto-terms is characterized by various kinds of semantic relations: the color terms are on a gradient; the names for parts of a chariot or of a tree are related anatomically; various kinds of congruity may exist between symbol sets in the mythical pantheon and the social structure.
Denotation is often ordered in folk-taxonomies; that is, hierarchies of inclusion and exclusion Conklin Since the terms were complementary we may assume, for the sake of this discussion, that they referred to the same reality for Balts and Teutons in the north, and Greeks and Armenians on the Black Sea.